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Displaying 18 of 18 results for "INPP5D"
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Title Date Issued Date Released Description
Data from: Is sex advantageous in adverse environments? A test of the abandon-ship hypothesis
10-09-2013 05-31-2017
Understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction remains a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology. Stress often induces sexual reproduction in facultatively sexual species (those species capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction). The abandon-ship hypothesis predicts higher allocation to sex under stress to allow low-fitness individuals to recombine their genotype, potentially increasing offspring fitness. However, effective tests of the abandon-ship hypothesis, particularly in multicellular organisms, are lacking. Here we test the abandon-ship hypothesis, using cyanogenic and acyanogenic defense phenotypes of the short-lived perennial herb Trifolium repens. Cyanogenesis provides an effective defense against herbivores and is under relatively simple genetic control (plants dominant for cyanogenesis at two alleles express the defended phenotype). Thus, maladapted individuals can acquire adaptive defense alleles for their offspring in a single episode of sexual reproduction. Plants were grown under high- and low-herbivory treatments (plants were exposed to herbivorous snails) and a control treatment (no herbivory). Herbivores reduced growth and fitness in all treated plants, but herbivory induced higher sexual allocation only in maladapted (acyanogenic) individuals. Overall, our results support the abandon-ship hypothesis.
Data from: Evidence for ship noise impacts on humpback whale foraging behaviour
08-10-2016 08-16-2016
Noise from shipping activity in North Atlantic coastal waters has been steadily increasing and is an area of growing conservation concern, as it has the potential to disrupt the behaviour of marine organisms. This study examines the impacts of ship noise on bottom foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic. Data were collected from 10 foraging whales using non-invasive archival tags that simultaneously recorded underwater movements and the acoustic environment at the whale. Using mixed models, we assess the effects of ship noise on seven parameters of their feeding behaviours. Independent variables included the presence or absence of ship noise and the received level of ship noise at the whale. We found significant effects on foraging, including slower descent rates and fewer side-roll feeding events per dive with increasing ship noise. During 5 of 18 ship passages, dives without side-rolls were observed. These findings indicate that humpback whales on Stellwagen Bank, an area with chronically elevated levels of shipping traffic, significantly change foraging activity when exposed to high levels of ship noise. This measureable reduction in within-dive foraging effort of individual whales could potentially lead to population-level impacts of shipping noise on baleen whale foraging success.
Ship-trip data
07-25-2015 11-16-2015
Ship-trips between source and recipient regions, including corresponding ballast water volume
Data from: Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise
04-23-2013 05-10-2013
Anthropogenic noise has fundamentally changed the acoustics of terrestrial and aquatic environments, and there is growing empirical evidence that even a single noise exposure can impact behaviour in a variety of vertebrate organisms. Here we use controlled experiments to investigate how the physiology of a marine invertebrate, the shore crab (Carcinus maenas), is affected by both single and repeated exposure to ship-noise playback. Crabs experiencing ship-noise playback consumed more oxygen, indicating a higher metabolic rate and potentially greater stress, than those exposed to ambient-noise playback. The response to single ship-noise playback was size-dependent, with heavier crabs showing a stronger response than lighter individuals. Repeated exposure to ambient-noise playback led to increased oxygen consumption (likely due to handling stress), whereas repeated exposure to ship-noise playback produced no change in physiological response; explanations include the possibility that crabs exhibited a maximal response on first exposure to ship-noise playback or that they habituated or become tolerant to it. These results highlight that invertebrates, like vertebrates, may also be susceptible to the detrimental impacts of anthropogenic noise, and demonstrate their tractability for more detailed investigations into the effects of this pervasive global pollutant.
Data from: Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish
03-30-2015 08-19-2015
1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. 3. We find evidence both across and within populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow-bodied morphology than fish from closed lakes and all-year residents. 4. Our data suggest that a shallow body morphology is beneficial to migratory individuals and our study is one of the first to link migratory strategy and intraspecific variation in body shape.
Data from: Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia
04-22-2015 04-22-2015
Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events.
Centropyge bicolor genotypic raw data
07-18-2016 08-16-2016
ABI fragment analysis files used for microsatellite genotyping.
Data from: Mating patterns and determinants of individual reproductive success in brown trout (Salmo trutta) revealed by parentage analysis of an entire stream living population
07-12-2010 05-31-2017
Reproductive success and its determinants are difficult to infer for wild populations of species with no parental care where behavioral observations are difficult or impossible. In this study, we characterized the breeding system and provide estimates of individual reproductive success under natural conditions for a stream-resident, semi-isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta) population. We inferred parentage using a full probability Bayesian model that combines genetic (microsatellite) with phenotypic data. We had tried to exhaustively sample all individuals from a population, including large sib-ship families from three consecutive offspring cohorts. This allowed us to make inferences about the parental genotypes that had produced these families, and thus to augment the parent file with the inferred parental genotypes in cases where large families had unsampled parents. We observed both polygamous and monogamous matings and large reproductive skew for both sexes, but particularly so in males. We found no impact of individual neutral genetic variation or between-partners genetic similarity on reproductive success. Combining parentage analysis with sib-ship reconstruction allows for more precise inference on variance of family sizes and more definite statements on the determinants of reproductive success.
Blair et al. Humpback foraging dives
07-11-2016 08-16-2016
Spreadsheet with metadata and measurements for all foraging dives analyzed. This includes the tag record ID, individual, year and month collected, total dive time, descent rate, ascent rate, maximum dive depth, number of bottom side-rolls, time between foraging dives, surface time immediately following dive, whether or not ship noise was present during the dive, and received level of noise during the dive.
VCR LTER Global Positioning System Projects 1992 to 2004
04-21-2011 04-21-2011
This dataset is a compendium of GPS Data collected by Randy Carlson and collaborators on the Virginia Coast Reserve (primarily), Plum Island and North Inlet. The data is shared as a .zip file containing a static web page with links to particular projects and the underlying data. To use the data, unzip it and use your web browser to open the index.html file.Contents include: American Oyster Catchers on the Virginia Coast Reserve - 2003 Lynette Winters - Salicornia - MSL elevation project Dynamic Evolution of Barrier Island Morphology and Ecology from 1996-2002 Documented Using High -Resolution GPS-GIS Topographic Mapping Surveys, Virginia Coast Reserve (for GSA, Denver, CO Oct 27-30, 2002 Broadwater Tower Overwash Fan Photos - Feburary 15, 2002 Hog Island Bay DGPS Drifter Study 2001 Ray Dueser/Nancy Moncrief Small Mammal GPS/GIS A Topographical History of North Myrtle Island, 1974 to 2001 Ray Dueser/Nancy Moncrief - Highest Elevations on VCR Barrier Islands Myrtle Island Planimetric area, Surface area & Volumetric Calculations 1996-2001Myrtle, Ship Shoal GIS/GPS UTM Shape Files and Grids Myrtle, Ship Shoal, ESNWR, Shirley, Steelman's Landing Text Files Complete List of All Small Mammal Trap locations 1995 - 2001 Ship Shoal Island Small Mammal Traps 1997 - 2000LTER Cross-Site GPS Surveys Hobcaw Barony / Baruch Institue SET/GPS Survey, South Carolina, December 2000 PIE/LTER - Plum Island Sound GPS Network, July 1998 Montandon Marsh at Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 1997Bathymetric Survey Procedures, Schematic Diagrams and Instructions The following instructions and procedures are used with reference to the Trimble 4000 SE Global Positioning System receiver, the Trimble NavBeacon XL, the Innerspace Digital Fathometer (Model 448) and the Innerspace DataLog with Guidance Software. GPS-referenced digital bathymetry Schematic Diagram of DGPS/Digital Fathometer connections for bathymetryInstructions for DataLog w/Guidance Software (Innerspace Digital Fathometer)Instructions for Trimble 4000 SE GPS Receiver and Trimble Navbeacon XLInnerspace Digital Fathometer - Model 448 - Field Protocol for Bathymetric Surveys Archived Bathymetric Projects Hog Island Bay DGPS Bathymetric Survey, 1999/2000 Phillip's Creek DGPS Bathymetric Survey 1999/2000 Oyster Harbor Bathymetric Survey (February 2000) Smith Point, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland DGPS Bathymetric Survey, Sept. 2001Fishermans/Smith/Mockhorn Bay Bathymetric Survey 2000 to 2001 Post-processed Kinematic GPS data: Is It Precise? (1998) Small Mammal GPS/GIS Applications Hog Island Small Mammal Traps on T1, T2, T4, T5 Fowling Point 1996, 1997Geomorphology Applications Parramore Island, Virginia Parramore Pimple Overwash Fans 1996 Parramore Pimple Overwash Fans 1997 Parramore Island Overwash Fans June 1998 Parramore Island Plugs - August 1998 Parramore Island Overwash Fan 1999 Hog Island, Virginia Broadwater Tower Overwash Fan June 1998 Photos of Broadwater Tower Overwash Fan - March 13, 1999 Broadwater Tower Overwash Fan 1999 Myrtle Island, Virginia A Topographical History of Myrtle Island, 1996 to 2001 Cobb and Fisherman's Islands, Virginia Cobb Island Overwash Fan July 1998 Fisherman's Island - ESNWR and ODU September /1998 Brownsville Farm GPS/GIS Project Long-Term Inundation Project, Christian/Thomas Brinson/Christian/Blum Project Eileen Appolone (ECU) Lisa Ricker's Static GPS Points in Northampton County Eileen Applone (East Carolina University) Static Survey d99124 Brownsville Farm GPS/GIS Project, Christian/Blum/Brinson VCR/LTER Tide Gauges and Water Level Recorders Red Bank Tide Gauge (part of Fowling Pt. survey) Hog Island WLR's 1996 (Brinson) Hog Island Tide Gauge 12/96 High tide surveys at PIE/LTER with Chuck Hopkinson Jim Morris, USC, at Debidue Island, South Carolina Benchmark BRNV in Brownsville, VCR/LTERMiscellaneous Static Sub-Networks Frank Day/Don Young - North Hog 2/99 (Excel File) or a TEXT file Frank Day 120 YR Old Dune Survey (Excel File) or a TEXT file Kindra Loomis GPS Kinematic/Topographic Survey 12/97 Clubhouse Creek at Parramore Island 1997 Phragmites on Southern Hog Island - (dataset only) (9/98) Oyster Harbor 1997 (Hayden & Porter) Southern Hog 1996 (Zieman) VCR/LTER Sediment Elevation Tables - Mockhorn/Wachapreague, August 2001Aaron Mills Benchmarks - Research Field in Oyster, October 2001 Birds Nests on the Virginia Coast Reserve VCR Birds 1997 (Erwin) VCR Birds 1995 and 1996 (Erwin) Mike Erwin/ Rachel Rounds/ Shellpile Points, August 2001Miscellaneous Post-processed GPS data: Is It Accurate? (1998) Miscellaneous GPS Points (pre-1992) 1992 and 1994 GPS Work by VCR/LTER UTM's OF RESEARCH SITES VCR/LTER GPS NETWORK (gif image)
Data from: Seascape and life-history traits do not predict self-recruitment in a coral reef fish
08-10-2016 08-16-2016
The persistence and resilience of many coral reef species are dependent on rates of connectivity among sub-populations. However, despite increasing research efforts, the spatial scale of larval dispersal remains unpredictable for most marine metapopulations. Here, we assess patterns of larval dispersal in the angelfish Centropyge bicolor in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, using parentage and sibling reconstruction analyses based on 23 microsatellite DNA loci. We found that, contrary to previous findings in this system, self-recruitment (SR) was virtually absent at both the reef (0.4–0.5% at 0.15 km2) and the lagoon scale (0.6–0.8% at approx. 700 km2). While approximately 25% of the collected juveniles were identified as potential siblings, the majority of sibling pairs were sampled from separate reefs. Integrating our findings with earlier research from the same system suggests that geographical setting and life-history traits alone are not suitable predictors of SR and that high levels of localized recruitment are not universal in coral reef fishes.
Data from: A hypervariable mitochondrial protein coding sequence associated with geographical origin in a cosmopolitan bloom-forming alga, Heterosigma akashiwo
04-12-2017 04-18-2017
Geographic distributions of phytoplankton species can be defined by events on both evolutionary time and shorter scales, e.g., recent climate changes. Additionally, modern industrial activity, including the transport of live fish and spat for aquaculture and aquatic microorganisms in ship ballast water, may aid the spread of phytoplankton. Obtaining a reliable marker is key to gaining insight into the phylogeographic history of a species. Here, we report a hypervariable mitochondrial gene in the cosmopolitan bloom-forming alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. We compared the entire mitochondrial genome sequences of seven H. akashiwo strains from Japanese and North American coastal waters and identified a hypervariable segment. The region codes for a hypothetical protein with no defined function, and its variations between Japanese and North American isolates, were prominent, while the sequences were more conserved among Japanese strains and North American isolates. Comparison of the sequence in isolates obtained from different geographical points in the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the sequence variations largely correlated with latitude and longitude (i.e. Pacific/Atlantic oceans). Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the sequence in determining the phylogeographic history of H. akashiwo.
Data from: Bone-to-body biometric relationships for Owens and Lahontan tui chubs and their hybrids in California
08-01-2013 12-20-2013
Regression parameters for the length of several bony structures against fish body length, and for body length against body weight, were determined for Owens tui chub (Siphateles bicolor snyderi), Lahontan tui chub (S. b. obesa) and hybrid swarm deriving from the two species. A total of 211 individuals from 16 localities from the Owens River and neighboring basins along the border between California and Nevada were used for regression analyses. The coefficient of determination of linear regressions for scales, pharyngeal arches, dentaries, cleithra, and opercula against body length were consistently high (r2 埲.9). Differences between subspecies were mainly with reference to the intercept parameter in comparisons involving Lahontan tui chub. Coefficients of determination from log-linear length-weight regressions were also high (r2 埲.9) for individual taxa and for the pooled data set combining both Lahontan and hybrid species. The length-weight relation ship did not differ between subspecies. Estimates of the length-weight relationship using data pooling both Lahontan and hybrid tui chub suggest a weak allometric growth effect (P<0.05). The bone-length to body-length and body-length to body-weight relationships presented here will be useful tools for future dietary studies of tui chub predators as well as for archaeological and paleontological studies on tui chub remains.
Data from: Predator-guided sampling reveals biotic structure in the bathypelagic
02-17-2016 03-04-2016
We targeted habitat used differentially by deep-diving, air-breathing predators to empirically sample their prey’s distributions off southern California. Fine-scale measurements of the spatial variability of potential prey animals from the surface to 1200 m were obtained using conventional fisheries echosounders aboard a surface ship and uniquely integrated into a deep-diving autonomous vehicle. Significant spatial variability in the size, composition, total biomass, and spatial organization of biota was evident over all spatial scales examined and was consistent with the general distribution patterns of foraging Cuvier’s beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) observed in separate studies. Striking differences were found in prey characteristics between regions at depth, however, did not reflect differences observed in surface layers. These differences in deep pelagic structure horizontally and relative to surface structure, absent clear physical differences, change our long-held views of this habitat as uniform. The revelation that animals deep in the water column are so spatially heterogeneous at scales from 10 m to 50 km critically affects our understanding of the processes driving predator-prey interactions, energy transfer, biogeochemical cycling and other ecological processes in the deep sea, and the connections between the productive surface mixed layer and the deep water column.
Data from: Population differentiation of 2 forms of Bryde’s whales in the Indian and Pacific Oceans
08-08-2013 10-15-2013
Accurate identification of units for conservation is particularly challenging for marine species as obvious barriers to gene flow are generally lacking. Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera spp.) are subject to multiple human-mediated stressors, including fisheries bycatch, ship strikes, and scientific whaling by Japan. For effective management, a clear understanding of how populations of each Bryde’s whale species/subspecies are genetically structured across their range is required. We conducted a population-level analysis of mtDNA control region sequences with 56 new samples from Oman, Maldives, and Bangladesh, plus published sequences from off Java and the Northwest Pacific. Nine diagnostic characters in the mitochondrial control region and a maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis identified 2 genetically recognized subspecies of Bryde’s whale: the larger, offshore form, B. edeni brydei, and the smaller, coastal form, B. e. edeni. Genetic diversity and differentiation indices, combined with a reconstructed maximum parsimony haplotype network, indicate strong differences in the genetic diversity and population structure within each subspecies. Discrete population units are identified for B. e. brydei in the Maldives, Java, and the Northwest Pacific, and for B. e. edeni between the Northern Indian Ocean (Oman and Bangladesh) and the coastal waters of Japan.
Data from: Sperm whales reduce foraging effort during exposure to 1-2 kHz sonar and killer whale sounds
02-08-2016 03-15-2016
The time and energetic costs of behavioral responses to incidental and experimental sonar exposures, as well as control stimuli, were quantified using hidden state analysis of time series of acoustic and movement data recorded by tags (DTAG) attached to 12 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using suction cups. Behavioral state transition modeling showed that tagged whales switched to a non-foraging, non-resting state during both experimental transmissions of low-frequency active sonar from an approaching vessel (LFAS; 1–2 kHz, source level 214 dB re 1 μPa m, four tag records) and playbacks of potential predator (killer whale, Orcinus orca) sounds broadcast at naturally occurring sound levels as a positive control from a drifting boat (five tag records). Time spent in foraging states and the probability of prey capture attempts were reduced during these two types of exposures with little change in overall locomotion activity, suggesting an effect on energy intake with no immediate compensation. Whales switched to the active non-foraging state over received sound pressure levels of 131–165 dB re 1 μPa during LFAS exposure. In contrast, no changes in foraging behavior were detected in response to experimental negative controls (no-sonar ship approach or noise control playback) or to experimental medium-frequency active sonar exposures (MFAS; 6–7 kHz, source level 199 re 1 μPa m, received sound pressure level [SPL] = 73–158 dB re 1 μPa). Similarly, there was no reduction in foraging effort for three whales exposed to incidental, unidentified 4.7–5.1 kHz sonar signals received at lower levels (SPL = 89–133 dB re 1 μPa). These results demonstrate that similar to predation risk, exposure to sonar can affect functional behaviors, and indicate that increased perception of risk with higher source level or lower frequency may modulate how sperm whales respond to anthropogenic sound.
Data from: Three dimensional tracking of a wide-ranging marine predator: flight heights and vulnerability to offshore wind farms
09-28-2015 11-16-2015
A large increase in offshore wind turbine capacity is anticipated within the next decade, raising concerns about possible adverse impacts on birds as a result of collision risk. Birds’ flight heights greatly influence this risk, yet height estimates are currently available only using methods such as radar- or ship-based observations over limited areas. Bird-borne data-loggers have the potential to provide improved estimates of collision risk and here, we used data from Global Position System (GPS)-loggers and barometric pressure loggers to track the three-dimensional movements of northern gannets rearing chicks at a large colony in south-east Scotland (Bass Rock), located <50 km from several major wind farm developments with recent planning consent. We estimated the foraging ranges and densities of birds at sea, their flight heights during different activities and the spatial variation in height during trips. We then used these data in collision-risk models to explore how the use of different methods to determine flight height affects the predicted risk of birds colliding with turbines. Gannets foraged in and around planned wind farm sites. The probability of flying at collision-risk height was low during commuting between colonies and foraging areas (median height 12 m) but was greater during periods of active foraging (median height 27 m), and we estimated that ˜1500 breeding adults from Bass Rock could be killed by collision with wind turbines at two planned sites in the Firth of Forth region each year. This is up to 12 times greater than the potential mortality predicted using other available flight-height estimates. Synthesis and applications: The use of conventional flight-height estimation techniques resulted in large underestimates of the numbers of birds at risk of colliding with wind turbines. Hence, we recommend using GPS and barometric tracking to derive activity-specific and spatially explicit flight heights and collision risks. Our predictions of potential mortality approached levels at which long-term population viability could be threatened, highlighting a need for further data to refine estimates of collision risks and sustainable mortality thresholds. We also advocate raising the minimum permitted clearance of turbine blades at sites with high potential collision risk from 22 to 30 m above sea level.
Data from: The structure and distribution of benthic communities on a shallow seamount (Cobb Seamount, Northeast Pacific Ocean)
10-28-2016 10-28-2016
Partially owing to their isolation and remote distribution, research on seamounts is still in its infancy, with few comprehensive datasets and empirical evidence supporting or refuting prevailing ecological paradigms. As anthropogenic activity in the high seas increases, so does the need for better understanding of seamount ecosystems and factors that influence the distribution of sensitive benthic communities. This study used quantitative community analyses to detail the structure, diversity, and distribution of benthic mega-epifauna communities on Cobb Seamount, a shallow seamount in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Underwater vehicles were used to visually survey the benthos and seafloor in ~1600 images (~5 m2 in size) between 34 and 1154 m depth. The analyses of 74 taxa from 11 phyla resulted in the identification of nine communities. Each community was typified by taxa considered to provide biological structure and/or be a primary producer. The majority of the community-defining taxa were either cold-water corals, sponges, or algae. Communities were generally distributed as bands encircling the seamount, and depth was consistently shown to be the strongest environmental proxy of the community-structuring processes. The remaining variability in community structure was partially explained by substrate type, rugosity, and slope. The study used environmental metrics, derived from ship-based multibeam bathymetry, to model the distribution of communities on the seamount. This model was successfully applied to map the distribution of communities on a 220 km2 region of Cobb Seamount. The results of the study support the paradigms that seamounts are diversity 'hotspots', that the majority of seamount communities are at risk to disturbance from bottom fishing, and that seamounts are refugia for biota, while refuting the idea that seamounts have high endemism.