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Title: Marine viruses discovered through metagenomics shed light on viral strategies throughout the oceans : Despite their increasingly recognized influence over marine ecosystems, little of the genetic diversity of marine viruses has been charted. Metagenomics has proved to be a powerful culturing independent approach for the discovery of novel viral genomes. Through this approach, we obtained a dataset of genomic sequences derived from highly abundant members of oceanic viral communities that belong to completely novel evolutionary lineages. These viruses are predicted to infect bacteria that are dominant across marine habitats. Exploring the distribution profile of the newly discovered viruses allowed us to better understand how the composition of viral communities throughout the oceans shifts to exploit the microbes that they infect according to the abundance of their hosts and environmental conditions of their habitat.      
keywords:
Genome sequencing and assembly
ID:
PRJEB19352
description:
Marine viruses are key drivers of host diversity, population dynamics and biogeochemical cycling, contributing to the daily flux of billions of tons of organic matter. Despite recent advancements in metagenomics, much of their biodiversity remains uncharacterized, impairing the study of viral communities and of their interactions with microbes and their environment. By combining data from 78 previously published marine viral metagenomes we obtained a dataset of 27,346 marine virome contigs which include 44 complete (circular) genomes. Genome clustering revealed that these are the first members of previously uncharacterized lineages. Furthermore, they outnumber all currently known phage genomes in marine habitats. Computational host prediction was performed including a newly developed and highly accurate method based on co-occurrence associations, revealing that many of the novel viruses infect numerically dominant members of the marine microbiome such as Prochlorococcus and Pelagibacter. A negative association was observed between host abundance and virus-to-host ratio, supporting the recently proposed Piggyback-the-Winner model of reduced phage lysis at higher host densities. Analyzing abundance patterns of both the new and previously known viruses throughout the oceans revealed strategies taken by marine viral communities to adapt between photic/aphotic, warm/cold and winter/summer regimes according to targeted hosts and diversity of auxiliary metabolic genes. Our results chart an important part of the marine viral sequence space and provide new handles to understand the interactions of these viruses with their hosts and the abiotic conditions of their environment.
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landingpage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJEB19352
authentication:
none
authorization:
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abbreviation:
NCBI
homePage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
ID:
SCR:006472
name:
National Center for Biotechnology Information
homePage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject
ID:
SCR:004801
name:
NCBI BioProject