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Title: ChIP-Seq reveals regulation of the heterochromatic mark, H3K9me3, in NAc following repeated cocaine administration      
keywords:
Epigenomics
ID:
PRJNA132069
description:
Repeated administration of the psychostimulant cocaine has been shown to produce persistent alterations in genome-wide transcriptional regulatory networks, chromatin remodeling activity and, ultimately, gene expression profiles in the brain’s reward circuitry. Virtually all previous investigations have centered on drug-mediated effects occurring throughout active euchromatic regions of the genome, such that very little is known concerning the impact of cocaine exposure on the regulation and maintenance of heterochromatin in adult brain. Here, we report that cocaine administration dramatically and dynamically alters heterochromatic histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region. Furthermore, we demonstrate that repeated cocaine exposure induces persistent decreases in heterochromatization in this brain region, suggesting a potential role for heterochromatic regulation in the long-term actions of cocaine. To identify precise genomic loci affected by these alterations, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was performed on NAc. ChIP-Seq analyses confirmed the existence of the H3K9me3 mark mainly within inter-genic regions of the genome and identified specific patterns of cocaine-induced H3K9me3 regulation at repetitive genomic sequences. Cocaine-mediated decreases in H3K9me3 enrichment at specific genomic repeats (e.g., LI repeats) were further confirmed by the increased expression of LINE-1 and IAP retrotransposons in NAc. Such increases likely reflect global patterns of genomic de-stabilization in this brain region following repeated cocaine administration and open the door for future investigations into the epigenetic and genetic basis of drug addiction. Overall design: Animals received daily i.p. injections of either 'saline' (7 treatments of saline) or 'repeated' cocaine (7 treatments of 20 mg/kg cocaine). 24 hours after the last dose, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed utilizing previously validated methods. Each experimental condition was performed in either duplicate or triplicate (2 cocaine, 3 saline). Briefly, for each ChIP, bilateral 14-gauge NAc punches (anterior and posterior) were pooled from 5 mice (20 punches). Tissue was lightly fixed to cross-link DNA with associated proteins and the material was further sheared and immunoprecipitated using sheep anti-rabbit magnetic beads conjugated to an antibody that specifically recognizes H3K9me3. Resulting immunoprecipitated DNA and total (input) genomic DNA were prepared for ChIP-sequencing using an Illumina kit according to manufacturer’s instructions. 20 ng of starting material, as determined by PicoGreen concentrations, was used in each case. Briefly, each sample underwent end repair followed by addition of an A base to the 3’ end. Proprietary adapters were then ligated to the ends, followed by size selection on a 3% agarose gel. The range of excision was 175-225 bp. Following DNA clean up, samples were amplified with 21 cycles of PCR. Amplification and size selection were confirmed with a BioAnalyzer. 5 pM concentrations were used to generate clusters for sequencing analysis.
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landingpage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA132069
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
ID:
pmid:21300862
dateReleased:
01-18-2011
name:
Mus musculus
ncbiID:
ncbitax:10090
abbreviation:
NCBI
homePage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
ID:
SCR:006472
name:
National Center for Biotechnology Information
homePage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject
ID:
SCR:004801
name:
NCBI BioProject