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Title: Methylphenidate exposure induces dopamine neuron loss and activation of microglia in the basal ganglia of mice      
keywords:
Transcriptome or Gene expression
ID:
PRJNA148497
description:
Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) a psychostimulant prescribed to manage ADHD symptoms, has been increasingly prescribed to children not meeting the strict criteria for ADHD. It has also been misused as a “cognitive enhancer” and as an alternative to other psychostimulants. Here, we investigate whether chronic or acute administration of methylphenidate in mice at either 1mg/kg or 10mg/kg dosing, affects cell number and gene expression in the basal ganglion. Methodology/Principal findings: Through the use of stereological counting methods, we observed a significant reduction (~20%) in dopamine neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) following chronic administration of 10mg/kg MPH. This dosage of MPH also induced a significant increase in the number of morphologically-activated SNpc microglia. Additionally, exposure to either 1mg/kg or 10 mg/kg MPH increased the sensitivity of SNpc dopamine neurons to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress. Unbiased gene screening employing Affymetrix GeneChip® HT MG-430 PM revealed changes in 115 and 54 genes in the substantia nigra (SN) of mice exposed to 1mg/kg and 10mg/kg MPH doses, respectively. Decreases in the mRNA levels of gdnf, dat1, vmat2 and th in the substantia nigra (SN) was observed with both acute and chronic dosing of 10mg/kg MPH. We also found an increase in mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory genes il-6 and tnf-α in the striatum; although these were seen only at an acute dose of 10mg/kg and not following chronic dosing. Conclusion: Collectively our results suggest that chronic MPH usage in mice, especially at prolonged higher doses, has long-term neurodegenerative consequences. Overall design: drug treatment: 3 control, 3 low dose treatment, 3 high dose treatment
accesstypes:
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landingpage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA148497
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
ID:
pmid:22470460
dateReleased:
08-14-2012
name:
Mus musculus
ncbiID:
ncbitax:10090
abbreviation:
NCBI
homePage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
ID:
SCR:006472
name:
National Center for Biotechnology Information