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Title: Displacement and re-accumulation of centromeric cohesin during transient pre-anaphase centromere splitting      
dateReleased:
09-29-2007
description:
The ring-shaped cohesin complex links sister chromatids until their timely segregation during mitosis. Cohesin is enriched at centromeres, where it provides the cohesive counter-force to bi-polar tension produced by the mitotic spindle. As a consequence of spindle tension, centromeric sequences transiently split in pre-anaphase cells, in some organisms up to several micrometeres. This ‘centromere breathing’ presents a paradox, how sister sequences separate where cohesin is most enriched. We now show that in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae, cohesin binding diminishes over centromeric sequences that split during breathing. We see no evidence for cohesin translocation to surrounding sequences, suggesting that cohesin is removed from centromeres during breathing. Two pools of cohesin can be distinguished. Cohesin loaded before DNA replication, that has established sister chromatid cohesion, disappears during breathing. In contrast, cohesin loaded after DNA replication is partly retained. As sister centromeres re-associate after transient separation, cohesin is re-loaded in a manner independent of the canonical cohesin loader Scc2/Scc4. Efficient centromere re-association requires the cohesion establishment factor Eco1, suggesting that re-establishment of sister chromatid cohesion contributes to the dynamic behaviour of centromeres in mitosis. These findings provide new insights into cohesin behaviour at centromeres. Keywords: ChIP-chip SAMPLES Origin of each biological sample: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (W303background) Growth conditions: Cells containing the MET3-CDC20 allele were grown at 25°C in SC medium lacking methionine with 2% raffinose or 2% glucose as the carbon source (Uhlmann et al. 2000). Cultures were synchronized in G1 with α-factor (5 μg/ml) and released into medium containing 100 mM hydroxyurea (HU) for arrest in early S-phase. For arrest in metaphase, cells were released from α-factor or HU arrest by filtration and re-suspension in YP medium supplemented with 5 mM methionine to deplete Cdc20. To inactivate cohesin loading, cells harbouring the temperature sensitive scc2-4 allele (Ciosk et al. 2000) were shifted to the restrictive temperature of 35°C for 1 hour before release. To prevent metaphase spindle assembly, or to disassemble already formed spindles, 7.5 μg/ml nocodazole was added to the medium for 1 hour. To wash out nocodazole, cells were filtered again, washed, and re-suspended in fresh medium lacking nocodazole for 1 hour. Expression of Scc1 to induce differentially epitope-tagged cohesin under control of the GAL1 promoter, or of Cdc14, was achieved by addition of 2% galactose for 1 hour to cultures grown in raffinose-containing medium. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Experiment type: ChIP-chip = Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by hybridization to a high-density oligonucleotide microarray (chip). Number of hybridizations performed: 13 ChIP-chip samples; 2 SUPernatant samples Analysis: ChIP samples were normalized against SUPernatant fractions Quality control: Confirmation of results by duplication of experiments, by usage of different epitope tags for the same protein, and by usage of different subunits of the same protein complex. Also, whole cell extract, SUPernatant, and ChIP fractions were checked by Western blotting. Protocols: ChIP-chip and hybridization protocols were performed as previously described (Katou et al. 2003; Lengronne et al. 2004; Lengronne et al. 2006). A summary is provided below: ChIP. Cells were grown under the conditions described above and cross-linked with 1% formaldehyde. Cells were disrupted using a Multi-Beads Shocker, and whole cell extracts were sonicated to obtain 400-600 bp genomic DNA fragments. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed with anti-HA antibody or anti-PK monoclonal antibody coupled to protein A Dynabeads. Immunprecipates were eluted and incubated overnight at 65ºC to reverse the cross-link. The immunoprecipitated genomic DNA was then incubated with proteinase K, extracted twice with phenol/chloroform/isoamylalcohol, precipitated, resuspended in TE and incubated with RNaseA. The DNA was purified, concentrated by ethanol precipitation and amplified by PCR after random priming. 10ug of the amplified DNA was digested with DNase I and end-labelled using TdT Terminal Transferase and Biotin-N6-ddATP. Hybridization and scanning. Samples were hybridized in buffer containing SSPE, TritonX-100, denatured salmon sperm DNA and biotin-labelled control oligonucleotide, oligo B2. Samples were denatured at 95ºC for 10 minutes before being hybridized to the arrays for 16 hours at 42ºC in a GeneChip Hybridization Oven 640. The washing and scanning protocol (FlexMidi_euk2v3_450), provided by Affymetrix, was performed automatically on a GeneChip Fluidics Station 450. Arrays were scanned using the GeneChip Scanner 3000 7G, and primary analysis of tiling chip data was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Operating Software (GCOS). ARRAY DESIGN General array design: in situ synthesized arrays from Affymetrix Location and ID of each spot on arrays: available upon request from Affymetrix Probe type: oligonucleotide Availability of arrays: commercially available from Affymetrix S. cerevisiae (Chromosome VI) rikDACF, P/N# 510636 S. cerevisiae T iling Array (Forward), P/N# 520286 REFERENCES Ciosk R, Shirayama M, Shevchenko A, Tanaka T, Toth A, Shevchenko A, Nasmyth K (2000) Cohesin's binding to chromosomes depends on a separate complex consisting of Scc2 and Scc4 proteins. Mol Cell 5: 1-20 Katou Y, Kanoh Y, Bandoh M, Noguchi H, Tanaka H, Ashikari T, Sugimoto K, Shirahige K (2003) S-phase checkpoint proteins Tof1 and Mrc1 form a stable replication-pausing complex. Nature 424: 1078-1083 Lengronne A, Katou Y, Mori S, Yokobayashi S, Kelly GP, Itoh T, Watanabe Y, Shirahige K, Uhlmann F (2004) Cohesin relocation from sites of chromosomal loading to places of convergent transcription. Nature 430: 573-578 Lengronne A, McIntyre J, Katou Y, Kanoh Y, Hopfner K-P, Shirahige K, Uhlmann F (2006) Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion at the S. cerevisiae replication fork. Mol Cell 23: 787-799 Uhlmann F, Wernic D, Poupart M-A, Koonin EV, Nasmyth K (2000) Cleavage of cohesin by the CD clan protease separin triggers anaphase in yeast. Cell 103: 375-386
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-8661
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
8661
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
06-22-2012
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-8661/E-GEOD-8661.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-8661/E-GEOD-8661.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE8661
storedIn:
Gene Expression Omnibus
qualifier:
not compressed
format:
HTML
accessType:
landing page
primary:
true
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
abbreviation:
EBI
homePage: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/
ID:
SCR:004727
name:
European Bioinformatics Institute
homePage: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
ID:
SCR:002964
name:
ArrayExpress

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