Mountain View
biomedical and healthCAre Data Discovery Index Ecosystem
help Advanced Search
Title: Protein phosphatase 2A protects centromeric sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis I      
dateReleased:
06-11-2010
description:
Segregation of homologous maternal and paternal centromeres to opposite poles during meiosis I depends on post-replicative crossing over between homologous non-sister chromatids, which creates chiasmata and therefore bivalent chromosomes. Destruction of sister chromatid cohesion along chromosome arms due to proteolytic cleavage of cohesin's Rec8 subunit by separase resolves chiasmata and thereby triggers the first meiotic division. This produces univalent chromosomes, the chromatids of which are held together by centromeric cohesin that has been protected from separase by shugoshin (Sgo1/MEI-S332) proteins. Here we show in both fission and budding yeast that Sgo1 recruits to centromeres a specific form of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Its inactivation causes loss of centromeric cohesin at anaphase I and random segregation of sister centromeres at the second meiotic division. Artificial recruitment of PP2A to chromosome arms prevents Rec8 phosphorylation and hinders resolution of chiasmata. Our data are consistent with the notion that efficient cleavage of Rec8 requires phosphorylation of cohesin and that this is blocked by PP2A at meiosis I centromeres. Keywords: ChIP-chip, Mitosis, Meiosis, Cell cycle, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Chromosome VI tiling array, Sgo1, Pp2A, Cse4, Ndc10, Rts1, Rec8 • Experimental factors Distribution of Cse4, Ndc10, Rts1 in mitotic G2 phase and meiosis I (S. cerevisiae). Distribution of Rec8 in meiosis I (S.cerevisiae). All experiments were performed in cells with the same genetic background (Saccharomyces cerevisiae SK1). • Experimental design ChIP analysis: In all cases, hybridization data for ChIP fraction was compared with SUP (supernatant) fraction. SUP fraction is same as WCE fraction. • Quality control steps taken Duplication, confirmation using different tags, and different subunits of the same complex. Confirmation of protein distribution using deletion mutant strain. Confirmation of several loci by q-PCR. Checking of the ChIP fraction by Western blotting. Checking of the ChIP fraction by swapping SUP fraction. Samples used, extract preparation and labelling: • The origin of each biological sample Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SK1) . • Manipulation of biological samples and protocols used Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and hybridization to Affimetrix high-density oligonucleotide arrays of S. cerevisiae chromosome VI was performed essentially as previously described (Katou et al., 2003, nature) (Lengronne et al., 2004, nature). • Technical protocols for preparing the hybridization extract The chromatin-immunprecipates were eluted and incubated over night at 65ºC to reverse the cross-link. Immunoprecipitated genomic DNA was incubated with proteinase K, extracted 2 times with phenol/chloroform/isoamylalcohol, precipitated, resuspended in TE and incubated with RnaseA. The DNA was then purified using the Qiagen PCR purification kit, and concentrated by ethanol precipitation. The DNA was amplified by PCR after random priming. 10 ug of amplified DNA was digested with Dnase I to a mean size of 100 bp. After Dnase I inactivation at 95ºC. DNA fragments were end-labeled by addition of 25 U of Terminal Transferase and 1 nmol Biotin-N6ddATP (NEN) for 1 hour at 37ºC as previously described by Winzeler et al. (Science. 281, 1194-1197, 1998). The entire sample was used for hybridization. • Hybridization procedures and parameters: Hybridization, blocking and washing were carried out as previously described (). Each sample was hybridized to the array in 150 ul containing 6xSSPE; 0.005% TritonX-100; 15 ug fragmented denatured salmon sperm DNA (Gibco-BRL); 1 nmole 3’biotin labelled control oligonucleotide (oligo B2, Affymetrix). Samples were denatured at 100ºC for 10 minutes, and then put on ice before being hybridized for 16 hours at 42ºC in a hybridization oven (GeneChip Hybridization Oven 640, Affymetrix). Washing and scanning protocol provided by Affymetrix was performed automatically on a fluidics station (GeneChip fluidics station 450, Affymetrix). • Measurement data and specifications: Arrays were scanned using the Genechip Scanner3000 7G following the library array description. All the raw data files can be downloaded from GEO database. The primary analysis of tiling chip data was performed following exactly the statistical algorithm used for Affymetrix GeneChip Operating Software (GCOS). The detailed information for the algorithm used can be downloaded from the Affymetrix web site at . The analysis is available on request. For the ChrVI array, one unit for analysis (locus) was set to 300bp. Fold change value, change p-value, and detection p-value for each locus were obtained by primary analysis. For the discrimination of positive and negative signals for the binding, we used three criteria as follows. First, the reliability of the signal strength was judged by detection p-value of each locus (p-value≤0.025 for cerevisiae). Secondly, reliability of binding ratio was judged by change p-value (p-value≤0.025 for cerevisiae). Thirdly, clusters consisting of at least 900bp contiguous loci that satisfied the above two criteria were selected, because it is known that a single site of protein-DNA interaction resulted in immuno-precipitation of DNA fragments that hybridized not only to the locus of the actual binding site but also to its neighbors. • Array Design: General array design: in situ synthesized arrays by Affymetrix Availability of arrays: commercially available from Affymetrix Location and ID of each spot on arrays: available from Affymetrix on request Probe type: oligonucleotide The arrays used in this study can be purchased from Affymetrix: Chromosome VI S.cerevisiae: rikDACFC6, P/N# 510636
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-4791
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
4791
dateSubmitted:
05-08-2006
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
03-27-2012
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
ID:
A-GEOD-347
name:
rikDacFC6
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-4791/E-GEOD-4791.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-4791/E-GEOD-4791.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE4791
storedIn:
Gene Expression Omnibus
qualifier:
not compressed
format:
HTML
accessType:
landing page
primary:
true
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
abbreviation:
EBI
homePage: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/
ID:
SCR:004727
name:
European Bioinformatics Institute
homePage: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
ID:
SCR:002964
name:
ArrayExpress