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Title: Analysis of an artificial zinc finger epigenetic modulator: widespread binding but limited regulation      
dateReleased:
08-01-2014
description:
Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) and genomic nucleases based on a DNA binding platform consist- ing of multiple zinc finger domains are currently be- ing developed for clinical applications. However, no genome-wide investigations into their binding speci- ficity have been performed. We have created six- finger ATFs to target two different 18 nt regions of the human SOX2 promoter; each ATF is constructed such that it contains or lacks a super KRAB do- main (SKD) that interacts with a complex contain- ing repressive histone methyltransferases. ChIP-seq analysis of the effector-free ATFs in MCF7 breast cancer cells identified thousands of binding sites, mostly in promoter regions; the addition of an SKD domain increased the number of binding sites ∼5- fold, with a majority of the new sites located out- side of promoters. De novo motif analyses suggest that the lack of binding specificity is due to sub- sets of the finger domains being used for genomic interactions. Although the ATFs display widespread binding, few genes showed expression differences; genes repressed by the ATF-SKD have stronger bind- ing sites and are more enriched for a 12 nt motif. Interestingly, epigenetic analyses indicate that the transcriptional repression caused by the ATF-SKD is not due to changes in active histone modifications. ATF plasmids were designed and stably integrated into MCF7 cells as described in (Stolzenburg et al. 2012). Stable lines were grown at 30–80% confluency in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (Corning, Corning, NY) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen, Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin; cells were selected using 5 µg/ml puromycin (VWR, Radnor, PA) and 200 µg/ml G418 (VWR, Radnor, PA). ATF expression was induced by treatment with media containing 1µg/ml doxycycline (VWR, Radnor, PA) at 0 h, doxycycline media was refreshed at 48 h, and cells were harvested at 72 h. ATF expression was confirmed by hemagglutinin (HA) tag western blot prior to HA ChIP-seq, histone ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analysis. For HA-tag ChIP-seq, stable MCF7 cell lines were induced using 100 ng/ml doxycycline (Sigma) at 0 h, doxycycline media was refreshed at 48 h, and cells were harvested at 72 h by crosslinking in a final concentration of 1% formaldehyde. Crosslinking was stopped after 5 min by adding glycine to a final concentration of 125 mM. Crosslinked cells were washed in cold phosphate buffered saline, lysed using 1 mL low-salt IP buffer (150 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH7.5), 5 mM EDTA, NP-40 (0.5%), Triton X-100 (1%) containing protease inhibitors) and aliquoted at 1 × 10∧7 cells/mL. Cells are then sonicated to a fragment size range of 500–800 bp. Samples were then diluted in 1 mL low-salt buffer and incubated with 3 µL of anti-HA antibody (Covance, Princeton, NJ). Three-hundred microliter Sepharose A beads (GE Healthcare Life Science) were used for pull-down. Samples were sequenced at the UNC-CH Genome Analysis Facil- ity (Chapel Hill, NC) on an HiSeq (Illumina, San Diego, CA) to read counts of 4.1–67.3 M total reads. For histone ChIP-seq, antibodies to H3K4me3 (Cell Signaling Tech- nologies CST9751), H3K9Ac (Cell Signaling Technologies CST9649) and H3K9me3 (Diagenode pAb-056-050) were used; samples were prepared as previously described (O’Geen et al. 2011).
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-59980
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
59980
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
08-09-2014
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Homo sapiens
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-59980/E-GEOD-59980.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-59980/E-GEOD-59980.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE59980
storedIn:
Gene Expression Omnibus
qualifier:
not compressed
format:
HTML
accessType:
landing page
primary:
true
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
abbreviation:
EBI
homePage: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/
ID:
SCR:004727
name:
European Bioinformatics Institute
homePage: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
ID:
SCR:002964
name:
ArrayExpress

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