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Title: Mapping of variable DNA methylation across multiple cell types defines a dynamic regulatory landscape of the human genome      
dateReleased:
04-06-2016
description:
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in many biological processes and diseases. Many studies have mapped DNA methylation changes associated with embryogenesis, cell differentiation and cancer at a genome-wide scale. Our understanding of genome-wide DNA methylation changes in a developmental or disease-related context has been steadily growing. However, the investigation of which CpGs are variably methylated in different normal cell or tissue types is still limited. Here we present an in-depth analysis of 54 single-CpG-resolution DNA methylomes of normal human cell types by integrating high-throughput sequencing-based methylation data. We find that the percentage of unmethylated CpGs is relatively fixed regardless of cell type. However, which CpGs are unmethylated is cell-type specific. We categorize the 26 million human autosomal CpGs based on their methylation levels across multiple cell types to identify variably methylated CpGs. Among all the autosomal CpGs, 22.6% exhibit variable DNA methylation across cell types included in our study. These variably methylated CpGs form 66 thousand variably methylated regions (VMRs), encompassing 11% of the genome. By integrating a multitude of genomic data, we found that VMRs enrich for histone modifications indicative of enhancers, suggesting their role as regulatory elements marking cell type specificity. VMRs enrich for transcription factor binding sites in a tissue-dependent manner. Importantly, they enrich for GWAS variants, suggesting VMRs could potentially be implicated in disease and complex traits. Taken together, our results highlight the link among CpG methylation variation, genetic variation and disease risk in a tissue-specific manner for many human cell types. Processed data includes new Samples and 75 Samples from GSE16368 and 2 Samples from GSE51565.
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-69894
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
69894
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
04-09-2016
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Homo sapiens
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-69894/E-GEOD-69894.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-69894/E-GEOD-69894.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE69894
storedIn:
Gene Expression Omnibus
qualifier:
not compressed
format:
HTML
accessType:
landing page
primary:
true
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
abbreviation:
EBI
homePage: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/
ID:
SCR:004727
name:
European Bioinformatics Institute
homePage: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
ID:
SCR:002964
name:
ArrayExpress

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