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Title: Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist prevents mTBI-induced changes in hippocampus gene expression and memory deficits in mice      
dateReleased:
10-17-2012
description:
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global problem reaching near epidemic numbers that manifests clinically with cognitive problems that decades later may result in dementias like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Presently, little can be done to prevent ensuing neurological dysfunctions by pharmacological means. Recently, it has become apparent that several CNS diseases share common terminal features of neuronal cell death. The effects of exendin-4 (Ex-4), a neuroprotective agent delivered via a subcutaneous micro-osmotic pump, were examined in the setting of mild TBI (mTBI). Utilizing a model of mTBI, where cognitive disturbances occur over time, animals were subjected to four treatments: sham; Ex-4; mTBI and Ex-4/mTBI. mTBI mice displayed deficits in novel object recognition, while Ex-4/mTBI mice performed similar to sham. Hippocampal gene expression, assessed by gene array methods, showed significant differences with little overlap in co-regulated genes between groups. Importantly, changes in gene expression induced by mTBI, including genes associated with AD were largely prevented by Ex-4. These data suggest a strong beneficial action of Ex-4 in managing secondary events induced by a traumatic brain injury. Male ICR mice weighing 30–40 g were kept five per cage under a constant 12-h light/dark cycle, at room temperature (23°C). Food (Purina rodent chow) and water were available ad libitum. Each mouse was used for one experiment and for one time point only. The Ethics Committee of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine approved the experimental protocol (M-09-055), in compliance with the guidelines for animal experimentation of the National Institutes of Health (DHEW publication 85–23, revised, 1995). A minimal number of mice were used for the study and all efforts were made to minimize suffering. All experimental manipulations were conducted during the light phase of the cycle. Experimental mTBI was induced using the concussive head trauma device described previously (Milman et al. 2005; Zohar et al. 2003). Briefly, mice were lightly anesthetized (Isoflurane) and placed under the weight-drop concussive head trauma instrument. The device consists of a metal tube (inner diameter 13 mm), placed vertically over the mouse head. A metal weight (30 g) was dropped from the top of the tube (80 cm) and struck the skull at the temporal right side between the corner of the eye and the ear. A sponge supported the head, allowing some antero-posterior motion without any rotational head movement at the moment of the impact. Immediately after the injury, mice were placed back in their cages for recovery. The effect of the injury upon behavior and cognition was studied from 7 days following the trauma. Sham treated mouse groups were treated identically only the weight was not dropped. The peptide Ex-4 was obtained from Bachem (Torrance, CA). In order to obtain a constant steady-state concentration of Ex-4 in mice prior to injury; Ex-4 was delivered by use of micro-osmotic pumps (7 day infusion duration), 2 days prior to the induction of mTBI. For the Ex-4 treated animals the peptide was dissolved in an equal volume of saline and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture and delivered from a subcutaneously implanted ALZET Micro-osmotic pump (Model 1007D, Alzet, Cupertino, CA) at a rate of 3.5 pM/kg/min. In drug treatment control groups, saline and DMSO pumps were implanted in each animal following the same surgical procedure as used for the Ex-4 treatment animals. In all animals, pumps were placed, posterior to the scapulae. Pump implantation was performed under anesthesia (ketamine/xylazine) utilizing sterile procedures. Mini pumps were implanted 48 hours prior to the weight drop injury. The number of animals from each treatment group that went on to microarray analysis were as follows, Sham, n = 5; mTBI, n = 4; Ex-4, n = 5; Ex-4/ mTBI, n = 4. Mouse cognition was assessed using the novel object recognition paradigm. After the completion of the novel object behavioral assessment, animals were euthanized and the hippocampus dissected for total RNA isolation. Total RNA was prepared using the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Inc. Valencia CA) following the manufacturer's specifications. Quantity and quality of the RNA was assessed using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer with RNA 6000 Nano Chips. The total RNA (500 ng) was used to generate biotin-labeled cRNA using the Illumina TotalPrep RNA Amplification Kit (Ambion; Austin, TX, cat # IL1791). In short, 500 ng of total RNA was first converted into single-stranded cDNA with reverse transcriptase using an oligo-dT primer containing the T7 RNA polymerase promoter site and then copied to produce double-stranded cDNA molecules. The double stranded cDNA was cleaned and concentrated with the supplied columns and used in an overnight in vitro transcription reaction where single-stranded RNA (cRNA) was generated and labeled by incorporation of biotin-16-UTP. This cRNA was used in the hybridization reaction. Briefly, a total of 750 ng of biotin-labeled cRNA was hybridized at 58oC for 16 hours to Illumina's SentrixMouse Ref-8, v2 Expression BeadChips (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Each BeadChip has ~24,000 well-annotated RefSeq transcripts with an approximately 30-fold redundancy. The arrays were washed, blocked and the biotin labeled cRNA was detected by staining with streptavidin-Cy3. Arrays were scanned at a resolution of 0.8 m using the Beadstation 500 X from Illumina, data was extracted from the image using Illumina BeadStudio software, v3.4.0.
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-41345
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
41345
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
10-22-2012
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Mus musculus
ID:
A-MEXP-1174
name:
Illumina MouseRef-8 v2.0 Expression BeadChip
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-41345/E-GEOD-41345.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-41345/E-GEOD-41345.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE41345
storedIn:
Gene Expression Omnibus
qualifier:
not compressed
format:
HTML
accessType:
landing page
primary:
true
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
abbreviation:
EBI
homePage: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/
ID:
SCR:004727
name:
European Bioinformatics Institute
homePage: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
ID:
SCR:002964
name:
ArrayExpress

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