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Title: Aromatic inhibitors derived from ammonia-pretreated lignocellulose hinder bacterial ethanologenesis by activating regulatory circuits controlling inhibitor efflux and detoxification (V)      
dateReleased:
07-18-2014
description:
Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for ammonia-pretreated biomass), phenolic aldehydes, and furfurals. To understand the bacterial pathways induced by inhibitors present in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, which are less well studied than acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, we developed and exploited synthetic mimics of ammonia-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). To determine regulatory responses to the inhibitors normally present in ACSH, we measured transcript and protein levels in an Escherichia coli ethanologen using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics during fermentation to ethanol of synthetic hydrolysates containing or lacking the inhibitors. Our study identified four major regulators mediating these responses, the MarA/SoxS/Rob network, AaeR, FrmR, and YqhC. Induction of these regulons was correlated with a reduced rate of ethanol production, buildup of pyruvate, depletion of ATP and NAD(P)H, and an inhibition of xylose conversion. The aromatic aldehyde inhibitor 5‑hydroxymethylfurfural appeared to be reduced to its alcohol form by the ethanologen during fermentation, whereas phenolic acid and amide inhibitors were not metabolized. Together, our findings establish that the major regulatory responses to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors are mediated by transcriptional rather than translational regulators, suggest that energy consumed for inhibitor efflux and detoxification may limit biofuel production, and identify a network of regulators for future synthetic biology efforts. E.coli ethanologen strain GLBRCE1 was grown in 3 media, AFEX corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH), synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and syntetic hydrolysate with added lignotoxins (SynH_LT). Fermentations were carried out in 3 L bioreactors (Applikon Biotechnology) containing 2.45 L of ACSH or SynH media, and cultures were diluted into ACSH or SynH with initial OD at 0.2, grown anaerobically overnight, and then inoculated into bioreactors to a starting OD600 of 0.2. 3 biological replicates (independent cultures) were grown in each medium. RNA samples were obtained at 4 time points, corresponding to exponential (Exp), transitional (Trans), stationary (Stat1) and late stationary (Stat2) growth phases.
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-59397
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
59397
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
09-05-2014
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Escherichia coli
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-59397/E-GEOD-59397.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-59397/E-GEOD-59397.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE59397
storedIn:
Gene Expression Omnibus
qualifier:
not compressed
format:
HTML
accessType:
landing page
primary:
true
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
abbreviation:
EBI
homePage: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/
ID:
SCR:004727
name:
European Bioinformatics Institute
homePage: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
ID:
SCR:002964
name:
ArrayExpress

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