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Title: Inflammation promotes a conversion of astrocytes into neural progenitor cells via NF-kB activation      
dateReleased:
09-16-2015
description:
Brain inflammation, a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases, is a complex series of events, which can be detrimental and even lead to neuronal death. Nonetheless, several studies suggest that inflammatory signals are also positively influencing neural cell proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation. Recently, correlative studies suggested that astrocytes are able to dedifferentiate upon injury, and may thereby re-acquire neural stem cells (NSC) potential. However, the mechanism underlying this dedifferentiation process upon injury remains unclear. In this study, we find that during the early response of reactive gliosis, inflammation induces a conversion of mature astrocytes into neural progenitors. A TNF treatment induces the decrease of specific astrocyte markers, such as GFAP or genes related to glycogen metabolism, while a subset of these cells re-express immaturity markers, such as CD44, Musashi-1 and Oct4. Thus, TNF treatment results in the appearance of cells that exhibit a neural progenitor phenotype and are able to proliferate and differentiate into neurons and/or astrocytes. This dedifferentiation process is maintained as long as TNF is present in the culture medium. In addition, we identify a role for Oct4 in this process, since the TNF-induced dedifferentiation can be prevented by inhibiting Oct4 expression. Our results show that activation of the NF-kB pathway through TNF plays an important role in the dedifferentiation of astrocytes via the re-expression of Oct4. These findings indicate that the first step of reactive gliosis is in fact a dedifferentiation process of resident astrocytes mediated by the NF-kB pathway. This dedifferentiation process is maintained as long as TNF is present in the culture medium. In addition, we identify a role for Oct4 in this process, since the TNF-induced dedifferentiation can be prevented by inhibiting Oct4 expression. Our results show that activation of the NF-kB pathway through TNF plays an important role in the dedifferentiation of astrocytes via the re-expression of Oct4. These findings indicate that the first step of reactive gliosis is in fact a dedifferentiation process of resident astrocytes mediated by the NF-kB pathway. Cultures of primary mouse astrocytes were treated with TNF (50 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Cells were collected and immediately homogenized in cooled down RNA NOW reagent (OZYME). Total RNA was extracted according to RNA NOW manufacturer's recommendations with -20°C overnight incubation for small RNA precipitation. Total RNA integrity and purity were assessed using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and RNA 6000 Nano LabChip kits (Agilent Technologies). Only good-quality RNA (no contamination or degradation, RIN > 9) was used and further processed. Total RNA samples were reverse-transcribed to double-stranded cDNA using specific primers, which reduce the priming of rRNA. cRNA was generated by in vitro transcription and reverse transcribed into a sense single-stranded cDNA. The cDNA was fragmented, labeled, and hybridized onto Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Arrays according to the Ambion Whole Transcript Expression kit for Affymetrix GeneChip Whole Transcript Expression Array Protocol (P/N 4425209 Rev.B 05/2009) and GeneChip WT Terminal Labeling and Hybridization User Manual for use with the Ambion Whole Transcript Expression kit (P/N 702808 Rev.6). Microarrays were then washed, stained, and scanned according to the manufacturer's instructions. The samples cover combinations of 7 time points (0H, 6H, 24H, 48H, 72H, 1W, 2W) and two conditions (TNF and control), with multiple replicates per condition and time point.
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-73022
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
73022
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
09-20-2015
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Mus musculus
ID:
A-AFFY-130
name:
Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array [MoGene-1_0-st-v1]
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-73022/E-GEOD-73022.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-73022/E-GEOD-73022.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE73022
storedIn:
Gene Expression Omnibus
qualifier:
not compressed
format:
HTML
accessType:
landing page
primary:
true
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
abbreviation:
EBI
homePage: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/
ID:
SCR:004727
name:
European Bioinformatics Institute
homePage: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
ID:
SCR:002964
name:
ArrayExpress

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