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Title: Syncytiotrophoblast generation from human pluripotent stem cells      
dateReleased:
04-06-2016
description:
Purpose: Syncytiotrophoblast (STB) is a multi-nucleated, terminally differentiated syncytium that covers the surface of the villous placenta and forms the major interface with maternal blood. It releases placental hormones and plays a primary role in exchange of gases, nutrients and waste products. Alterations in STB development and turnover have been implicated in placental diseases, including preeclampsia (PE). In vitro cell models are badly needed to study STB development and physiology due to inaccessibility to placental tissues during gestation. To establish in vitro STB model system, we generate STB and its mononucleated precursors from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and profile for RNA content by RNAseq. Methods: H1 Human ESC (WA01) were treated with BMP4, the ALK4/5/7 inhibitor (A83-01), and the FGF2 signaling inhibitor (PD173074) (BAP) to direct them to the trophoblast lineage and provided both STB and extravillous trophoblast. Syncytial areas emerged at day 8 BAP treatment ranged in diameter from ~40 µm to > 100 µm. The intact syncytial areas were isolated by sieving successively through 70 μm and 40 μm mesh cell strainers. The captured cells are recovered by inverting the strainer and rinsing with culture medium to separate large (>70 μm) and middle size cell sheets (40-70 μm). The fraction that passes through both sieves represents cells of smallest diameter (< 40 μm), presumably cytotrophoblast. Total 12 RNA samples from triplicate three size-fractioned BAP treated and three untreated hESC cultured in a FGF2 supplemented medium in parallel were analyzed. Results: The larger > 70 μm areas stained positively for STB markers while ultrastructural analysis clearly revealed multi-nuclear cells with an extensive cytoplasm containing many prominent secretion granules. The larger STB areas also had a larger DNA content that > 70 μm fraction contained 37 times more nuclear content and 40-70 µm fraction did 16 times more. Compared to the < 40 μm cell fraction, these larger cells over-expressed a full repertoire of genes characteristic of STB, e.g. CGA, CGB, PGF, ERVW1, GCM1. The smallest cell fraction had a DNA content consistent with mononuclear diploid cells, contained few secretory granules, and were only weakly positive for STB markers. Conclusion: The data are consistent with the > 70 μm cells being mature STB, while the intermediate fraction may represent a precursor population. Human ESC directed along the trophoblast lineage by BAP treatment offers a useful model for following STB formation in vitro and suggest that this protocol may have utility in studying the basis of certain placental diseases, especially preeclampsia, where placental tissue isolated at term or after pregnancy terminations can only offer limited information. Three size fraction mRNA profiles of syncytial areas emerged at day 8 BAP treatment of hESC were generated by deep sequencing along with untreated hESC, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2500.
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-72712
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
72712
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
04-09-2016
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Homo sapiens
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-72712/E-GEOD-72712.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-72712/E-GEOD-72712.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none