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Title: DNA demethylation by Tet dioxygenases controls gastrula patterning by regulating Lefty-Nodal signaling      
dateReleased:
10-27-2016
description:
Mammalian genomes are subjected to epigenetic modifications, including cytosine methylation by DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) and further oxidation by Ten-eleven-translocation (Tet) family of dioxygenases. Cytosine methylation plays key roles in multiple processes such as genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. However, the functional significance of cytosine methylation and the further oxidation has remained undetermined in mouse embryogenesis. Here we show that global inactivation of all three Tet genes in mice led to consistent defects in gastrulation. The defects include reduced specification of the axial mesoderm and paraxial mesoderm, mimicking phenotypes in embryos with gain-of-function Nodal signaling, a cardinal cue for gastrulation. Introduction of a single mutant allele of Nodal in the Tet mutant background partially restored patterning, suggesting that hyperactive Nodal signaling is a leading cause for the gastrulation failure of Tet mutants. Increased Nodal signaling is likely due to diminished expression of the Lefty1 and Lefty2 genes, inhibitors of Nodal signaling. Moreover, reduction in the Lefty gene expression can be ascribed to elevated DNA methylation as both Lefty-Nodal signaling and normal morphogenesis are largely restored in Tet-deficient embryos when the Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b genes are disrupted. Additionally, specific inactivation of Tet by point mutations abolishing the dioxygenase activity causes similar molecular and gastrulation abnormalities. Taken together, our results show that Tet-mediated DNA oxidation modulates the Lefty-Nodal signaling by promoting demethylation of the shared target genes with Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. These findings reveal a fundamental epigenetic mechanism featuring dynamic DNA methylation and demethylation and their role in the regulation of key signaling in body plan formation during early embryogenesis. Examine RNA expression and DNA methylation differences between Tet-null and wild type samples of mouse epiblast in E6.5.
privacy:
not applicable
aggregation:
instance of dataset
ID:
E-GEOD-76261
refinement:
raw
alternateIdentifiers:
76261
keywords:
functional genomics
dateModified:
10-28-2016
creators:
Rui WANG
availability:
available
types:
gene expression
name:
Mus musculus
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-76261/E-GEOD-76261.raw.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/files/E-GEOD-76261/E-GEOD-76261.processed.1.zip
storedIn:
ArrayExpress
qualifier:
gzip compressed
format:
TXT
accessType:
download
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
accessURL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE76261
storedIn:
Gene Expression Omnibus
qualifier:
not compressed
format:
HTML
accessType:
landing page
primary:
true
authentication:
none
authorization:
none
abbreviation:
EBI
homePage: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/
ID:
SCR:004727
name:
European Bioinformatics Institute
homePage: https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
ID:
SCR:002964
name:
ArrayExpress

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